Traffic congestion and tidal flow management are two major problems in modern urban areas which lead to road accident and loss of life. To implement this, we introduce Automatic Ambulance Rescue System (AARS). The main idea behind this scheme is ambulance can reach smoothly to hospital in time, by mechanically controlling traffic lights in path. The ambulance is controlled by control unit which gives the shortest path for reaching hospital and controls traffic lights. The sensor senses the spot and the nearest ambulance reaches the accident spot. The traffic lights in the path of the ambulance are controlled. Code Shoppy The ambulance is guided to hospital by server through shortest route. The vehicle unit installed in vehicle senses the accident and sends the location of the accident to the main server in the ambulance section. The main server finds the ambulance, nearest to the accident spot and also shortest path between ambulance, accident spot and nearest hospital.
A design for automatically controlling traffic signals so that ambulance would be able to cross all traffic junctions without waiting. In vehicle section, vibration sensor monitors the speed and if it is over speed, alert will be produced and automatically speed will be reduced. For rash driving, we have placed MEMS sensor. Once MEMS gets tilted, message will be sent through GSM with location. Once receiving the message, ambulance will arrive to the particular section. The display unit in ambulance section is used for driver’s reference. It will show the names and distances of the nearest hospitals so that ambulance can reach hospital as soon as possible. The signal section receives the signal from ambulance section and signal comes to green automatically. It helps ambulance to reach hospital without any traffic problem. A.Vehicle Section In Vehicle Section, all the equipments are connected to microcontroller. The Piezoelectric sensor is used as vibration sensor to measure flex, touch, vibration and shock. Piezoelectric sensor is a device that uses piezoelectric effect to measure changes in acceleration, pressure, temperature, strain or force by converting them to an electric charge. Sensor based on piezoelectric effect can operate from transverse, longitudinal, shear forces and are insensitive to electric field and electromagnetic radiation. This piezoelectric sensor measures dynamic pressure which includes blast, ballistics and engine combustion under varying condition. An electronic amplifier is an electronic device that increases power of a signal and converts alternating current into direct current. Here, we have used Microcontroller ARM7 for this vehicle section. ARM7 is a group of older 32-bit ARM processor. ARM is a family of instruction set architecture for computer processor based on a reduced instruction set computing. A RISC-based computer design approach means ARM processor requires significantly fewer transistors. LPC2148 is the widely used IC from ARM7 family which we have used in vehicle section. It is pre-loaded with many inbuilt peripherals making it more efficient. Power supply, crystal oscillator, reset circuit, UART are the minimum listed hardware needed for LPC2148. It works on 3.3V power supply, transformer is used to step down 230V AC to 9V AC supply and provide isolation between power grid and circuit. Rectifier in LPC2148 is used to convert AC supply into DC and regulator is used to regulate DC supply output, reset button is essential to avoid programming pitfalls and provide clock for RTC operation. LPC2148 has inbuilt ISP which means we can program it within the system using serial communication on COM0. Indicator indicates through buzzer whether accident has occurred. The buzzer produces sound when accident occurs.
MEMS sensor used for this project is one of the most promising technologies for 21st century. It is an enabling technology for pressure and acceleration sensors. MEMS-based sensors provide an interface that can sense and process. They are a class of devices which makes small mechanical and electrical components on a single chip. They are crucial components in hard disk drives, automotive electronics, computer peripherals, wireless devices, medical equipment and smart mobile electronic devices such as PDAs and cell phones. The benefits of MEMS are high performance, miniaturization, integration, low power and low cost. GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a widely used digital mobile telephony system. GSM uses time division multiple access (TDMA) and is the most widely used of the three digital wireless telephony technologies (TDMA, GSM, and CDMA). The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. The sensor installed in the vehicle unit senses the accident and GPS tracks the location of the accident. Through GSM, it sends the location of the accident to the ambulance section . The buzzer produces sound when accident occurs. The central unit finds the ambulance, nearest to the accident spot and also the shortest path between the location of the accident, ambulance and the nearest hospital. The ambulance crosses all the traffic junctions by automatically controlling the traffic signals and reaches the nearest hospital. Here, wireless technologies are used to transfer information. B. Ambulance Section In Ambulance Section, we used PIC microcontroller. The serial number of the IC is 16F877A. This section consists of crystal oscillator, power circuit and serial communication. 9V input supply is given and the operating voltage is 5V. The crystal oscillator is used to work according to the frequency change. In a PIC microcontroller, there are totally 40 pins and 5 ports; port A to port E. PIC is a family of modified architecture microcontrollers. The name PIC initially referred to Peripheral Interface Controller. The MAX232 is an IC, which converts signals from an RS-232 serial port to signals suitable for use in TTL compatible digital logic circuits. Here, it is used for the purpose of serial communication. It is a dual driver/receiver. The display unit is for the purpose of driver’s reference. An encoder is a device, transducer, circuit, algorithm, software program, or person, which converts data from one format or code to another, for the purposes of speed, standardization, security, secrecy or compressions. Here, the encoder converts the serial data into parallel data because the controller performs only serial functions and wireless is parallel communication. The RF transmitter consists of switches, the signal changes according to it . An RF module is an electronic device used to transmit or receive radio signals between two devices. It is often preferable to communicate with other device wirelessly in an embedded system. The wireless communication may be performed through optical communication or RF communication. The choice is RF for many applications as it does not require line of sight. RF communications use a transmitter or receiver. C. Signal Section In Signal Section, the functions of the microcontroller section are same as in the ambulance section. Here, we used reader device, decoder unit and signal indicator. The reader device receives the data which the RF transmitter sends from the ambulance section. Any device may act as a reader that can display text on a screen. A decoder is a device that performs the reverse operation of an encoder. To recover the original information, it undoes the encoding. Normally, the same method which is used to encode is reversed to decode. It is a combinational circuit that converts binary information. Here, the decoder unit converts the parallel data into serial data and sends it to the microcontroller section. The received signal strength indicator (RSSI) measures the power present in a radio signal which is received. RSSI is a radio receiver technology metric, which is normally invisible to the user of the device which consists of receiver, but is directly known to users of wireless networking. The output of RSSI is a DC analog level. The ambulance unit is the transmitter and each signal is the receiver. When the data is transmitted to the receiver, the signal comes to green automatically . The decoder converts the data from parallel to serial because the controller knows only serial language. In this way, this system helps the ambulance to reach the emergency site and then to hospital without time delay so that intensive care can be given to the patient in the golden hour and many lives can be saved.